The Writings of
Thomas Jefferson

editor H.A. Washington
New York :  H.W. Derby
To Benjamin Austin, Esq.
Monticello, January 9, 1816.

DEAR SIR,—Your favor of December 21st has been received, and I am first to thank you for the pamphlet it covered.  The same description of persons which is the subject of that is so much multiplied here too, as to be almost a grievance, and by their numbers in the public councils, have wrested from the public hand the direction of the pruning knife.  But with us as a body, they are republican, and mostly moderate in their views ;  so far, therefore, less objects of jealousy than with you.  Your opinions on the events which have taken place in France, are entirely just, so far as these events are yet developed.  But they have not reached their ultimate termination.  There is still an awful void between the present and what is to be the last chapter of that history ;  and I fear it is to be filled with abominations as frightful as those which have already disgraced it.  That nation is too high-minded, has too much innate force, intelligence and elasticity, to remain under its present compression.  Samson will arise in his strength, as of old, and as of old will burst asunder the withes and the cords, and the webs of the Philistines.  But what are to be the scenes of havoc and horror, and how widely they may spread between brethren of the same house, our ignorance of the interior feuds and antipathies of the country places beyond our ken.  It will end, nevertheless, in a representative government, in a government in which the will of the people will be an effective ingredient.  This important element has taken root in the European mind, and will have its growth ;  their despots, sensible of this, are already offering this modification of their gevernments, as if of their own accord.  Instead of the parricide treason of Bonaparte, in perverting the means confided to him as a republican magistrate, to the subversion of that republic and erection of a military despotism for himself and his family, had he used it honestly for the establishment and support of a free government in his own country, France would now have been in freedom and rest ;  and her example operating in a contrary direction, every nation in Europe would have had a government over which the will of the people would have had some control.  His atrocious egotism has checked the salutary progress of principle, and deluged it with rivers of blood which are not yet run out.  To the vast sum of devastation and of human misery, of which he has been the guilty cause, much is still to be added.  But the object is fixed in the eye of nations, and they will press on to its accomplishment and to the general amelioration of the condition of man.  What a germ have we planted, and how faithfully should we cherish the parent tree at home !

You tell me I am quoted by those who wish to continue our dependence on England for manufactures.  There was a time when I might have been so quoted with more candor, but within the thirty years which have since elapsed, how are circumstances changed! We were then in peace.  Our independent place among nations was acknowledged.  A commerce which offered the raw material in exchange for the same material after receiving the last touch of industry, was worthy of welcome to all nations.  It was expected that those especially to whom manufacturing industry was important, would cherish the friendship of such customers by every favor, by every inducement, and particularly cultivate their peace by every act of justice and friendship.  Under this prospect the question seemed legitimate, whether, with such an immensity of unimproved land, courting the hand of husbandry, the industry of agriculture, or that of manufactures, would add most to the national wealth ?  And the doubt was entertained on this consideration chiefly, that to the labor of the husbandman a vast addition is made by the spontaneous energies of the earth on which it is employed :  for one grain of wheat committed to the earth, she renders twenty, thirty, and even fifty fold, whereas to the labor of the manufacturer nothing is added.  Pounds of flax, in his hands, yield, on the contrary, but pennyweights of lace.  This exchange, too, laborious as it might seem, what a field did it promise for the occupations of the ocean ;  what a nursery for that class of citizens who were to exercise and maintain our equal rights on that element ?  This was the state of things in 1785, when the “Notes on Virginia” were first printed ;  when, the ocean being open to all nations, and their common right in it acknowledged and exercised under regulations sanctioned by the assent and usage of all, it was thought that the doubt might claim some consideration.  But who in 1785 could foresee the rapid depravity which was to render the close of that century the disgrace of the history of man ?  Who could have imagined that the two most distinguished in the rank of nations, for science and civilization, would have suddenly descended from that honorable eminence, and setting at defiance all those moral laws established by the Author of nature between nation and nation, as between man and man, would cover earth and sea with robberies and piracies, merely because strong enough to do it with temporal impunity ;  and that under this disbandment of nations from social order, we should have been despoiled of a thousand ships, and have thousands of our citizens reduced to Algerine slavery.  Yet all this has taken place.  One of these nations interdicted to our vessels all harbors of the globe without having first proceeded to some one of hers, there paid a tribute proportioned to the cargo, and obtained her license to proceed to the port of destination.  The other declared them to be lawful prize if they had touched at the port, or been visited by a ship of the enemy nation.  Thus were we completely excluded from the ocean.  Compare this state of things with that of ’85, and say whether an opinion founded in the circumstances of that day can be fairly applied to those of the present.  We have experienced what we did not then believe, that there exist both profligacy and power enough to exclude us from the field of interchange with other nations :  that to be independent for the comforts of life we must fabricate them ourselves.  We must now place the manufacturer by the side of the agriculturist.  The former question is suppressed, or rather assumes a new form.  Shall we make our own comforts, or go without them, at the will of a foreign nation ?  He, therefore, who is now against domestic manufacture, must be for reducing us either to dependence on that foreign nation, or to be clothed in skins, and to live like wild beasts in dens and caverns.  I am not one of these ;  experience has taught me that manufactures are now as necessary to our independence as to our comfort ;  and if those who quote me as of a different opinion, will keep pace with me in purchasing nothing foreign where an equivalent of domestic fabric can be obtained, without regard to difference of price, it will not be our fault if we do not soon have a supply at home equal to our demand, and wrest that weapon of distress from the hand which has wielded it.  If it shall be proposed to go beyond our own supply, the question of ’85 will then recur, will our surplus labor be then most beneficially employed in the culture of the earth, or in the fabrications of art ?  We have time yet for consideration, before that question will press upon us ;  and the maxim to be applied will depend on the circumstances which shall then exist ;  for in so complicated a science as political economy, no one axiom can be laid down as wise and expedient for all times and circumstances, and for their contraries.  Inattention to this is what has called for this explanation, which reflection would have rendered unnecessary with the candid, while nothing will do it with those who use the former opinion only as a stalking horse, to cover their disloyal propensities to keep us in eternal vassalage to a foreign and unfriendly people.

I salute you with assurances of great respect and esteem.

To Benjamin Austin, Esq.
Monticello, February 9, 1816.

SIR,—Your favor of January 25th is just now received.  I am in general extremely unwilling to be carried into the newspapers, no matter what the subject ;  the whole pack of the Essex kennel would open upon me.  With respect, however, to so much of my letter of January 9th as relates to manufactures, I have less repugnance, because there is perhaps a degree of duty to avow a change of opinion called for by a change of circumstances, and especially on a point now become peculiarly interesting.

What relates to Bonaparte stands on different ground.  You think it will silence the misrepresentations of my enemies as to my opinions of him.  No, Sir ;  it will not silence them.  They had no ground either in my words or actions for these misrepresentations before, and cannot have less afterwards; nor will they calumniate less.  There is, however, a consideration respecting our own friends, which may merit attention.  I have grieved to see even good republicans so infatuated as to this man, as to consider his downfall as calamitous to the cause of liberty.  In their indignation against England which is just, they seem to consider all her enemies as our friends, when it is well known there was not a being on earth who bore us so deadly a hatred.  In fact, he saw nothing in this world but himself, and looked on the people under him as his cattle, beasts for burden and slaughter.  Promises cost him nothing when they could serve his purpose.  On his return from Elba, what did he not promise ?  But those who had credited them a little, soon saw their total insignificance, and, satisfied they could not fall under worse hands, refused every effort after the defeat of Waterloo.  Their present sufferings will have a term ;  his iron despotism would have had none.  France has now a family of fools at its head, from whom, whenever it can shake off its foreign riders, it will extort a free Constitution, or dismount them and establish some other on the solid basis of national right.  To whine after this exorcised demon is a disgrace to republicans, and must have arisen either from want of reflection, or the indulgence of passion against principle.  If anything I have said could lead them to take correcter views, to rally to the polar principles of genuine republicanism, I could consent that that part of my letter also should go into a newspaper.  This I leave to yourself and such candid friends as you may consult.  There is one word in the letter, however, which decency towards the allied sovereigns requires should be softened.  Instead of despots, call them rulers.  The first paragraph, too, of seven or eight lines, must be wholly omitted.  Trusting all the rest to your discretion, I salute you with great esteem and respect.