The Writings of
Thomas Jefferson

editor H.A. Washington
New York :  H.W. Derby, 1861

To William Wirt.
Monticello, January 5, 1818.

I have first to thank you, dear Sir, for the copy of your late work which you have been so kind as to send me, and then to render you double congratulations, first, on the general applause it has so justly received, and next on the public testimony of esteem for its author, manifested by your late call to the executive councils of the nation.  All this I do heartily, and then proceed to a case of business on which you will have to advise the government on the threshold of your office.  You have seen the death of General Kosciusko announced in the papers in such a way as not to be doubted.  He had in the funds of the United States a very considerable sum of money, on the interest of which he depended for subsistence.  On his leaving the United States, in 1798, he placed it under my direction by a power of attorney, which I executed entirely through Mr. Barnes, who regularly remitted his interest.  But he left also in my hands an autograph will, disposing of his funds in a particular course of charity, and making me his executor.  The question the government will ask of you, and which I therefore ask, is in what court must this will be proved, and my qualification as executor be received, to justify the United States in placing these funds under the trust ?  This is to be executed wholly in this State, and will occupy so long a course of time beyond what I can expect to live, that I think to propose to place it under the Court of Chancery.  The place of probate generally follows the residence of the testator.  That was in a foreign country in the present case.  Sometimes the bona notabilia.  The evidences or representations of these (the certificates) are in my hands.  The things represented (the money) in those of the United States.  But where are the United States ?  Everywhere, I suppose, where they have government or property liable to the demand on payment.  That is to say, in every State of the Union, in this, for example, as well as any other, strengthened by the circumstances of the deposit of the will, the residence of the executor, and the place where the trust is to be executed.  In no instance, I believe, does the mere habitation of the debtor draw to it the place of probate, and if it did, the United States are omnipresent by their functionaries, as well as property in every State of the Union.  I am led by these considerations to suppose our district or general court competent to the object; but you know best, and by your advice, sanctioned by the Secretary of the Treasury, I shall act.  I write to the Secretary on this subject.  If our district court will do, I can attend it personally;  if the general court only be competent, I am in hopes it will find means of dispensing with my personal attendance.  I salute you with affectionate esteem and respect.

To Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse.
Monticello, March 3, 1818.

Dear Sir

I have just received your favor of February 20th, in which you observe that Mr. Wirt, on page 47 of his Life of Patrick Henry, quotes me as saying that "Mr. Henry certainly gave the first impulse to the ball of revolution."  I well recollect to have used some such expression in a letter to him, and am tolerably certain that our own State being the subject under contemplation, I must have used it with respect to that only.  Whether he has given it a more general aspect I cannot say, as the passage is not in the page you quote, nor, after thumbing over much of the book, have I been able to find it.[1]  In page 417 there is something like it, but not the exact expression, and even there it may be doubted whether Mr. Wirt had his eye on Virginia alone, or on all the colonies.  But the question, who commenced the Revolution ? is as difficult as that of the first inventors of a thousand good things.  For example, who first discovered the principle of gravity ?  Not Newton ;  for Galileo, who died the year that Newton was born, had measured its force in the descent of gravid bodies.  Who invented the Lavoiserian chemistry ?  The English say Dr. Black, by the preparatory discovery of latent heat.  Who invented the steamboat ?  Was it Gerbert, the Marquis of Worcester, Newcomen, Savary, Papin, Fitch, Fulton ?  The fact is, that one new idea leads to another, that to a third, and so on through a course of time until some one, with whom no one of these ideas was original, combines all together, and produces what is justly called a new invention.  I suppose it would be as difficult to trace our Revolution to its first embryo.  We do not know how long it was hatching in the British Cabinet before they ventured to make the first of the experiments which were to develop it in the end and to produce complete parliamentary supremacy.  Those you mention in Massachusetts as preceding the stamp act, might be the first visible symptoms of that design.  The proposition of that act in 1764, was the first here.  Your opposition, therefore, preceded ours, as occasion was sooner given there than here, and the truth, I suppose, is, that the opposition in every colony began whenever the encroachment was presented to it.  This question of priority is as the inquiry would be who first, of the three hundred Spartans, offered his name to Leonidas ?  I shall be happy to see justice done to the merits of all, by the unexceptionable umpirage of date and facts, and especially from the pen which is proposed to be employed in it.

I rejoice, indeed, to learn from you that Mr. Adams retains the strength of his memory, his faculties, his cheerfulness, and even his epistolary industry.  This last is gone from me.  The aversion has been growing on me for a considerable time, and now, near the close of seventy-five, is become almost insuperable.  I am much debilitated in body, and my memory sensibly on the wane.  Still, however, I enjoy good health and spirits, and am as industrious a reader as when a student at college.  Not of newspapers.  These I have discarded.  I relinquish, as I ought to do, all intermeddling with public affairs, committing myself cheerfully to the watch and care of those for whom, in my turn, I have watched and cared.  When I contemplate the immense advances in science and discoveries in the arts which have been made within the period of my life, I look forward with confidence to equal advances by the present generation, and have no doubt they will consequently be as much wiser than we have been as we than our fathers were, and they than the burners of witches.  Even the metaphysical contest, which you so pleasantly described to me in a former letter, will probably end in improvement, by clearing the mind of Platonic mysticism and unintelligible jargon.  Although age is taking from me the power of communicating by letter with my friends as industriously as heretofore, I shall still claim with them the same place they will ever hold in my affections, and on this ground I, with sincerity and pleasure, assure you of my great esteem and respect.

1 It was found page 41.

To Nathaniel Burwell, Esq.
Monticello, March 14, 1817.

Dear Sir

Your letter of February 17th found me suffering under an attack of rheumatism, which has but now left me at sufficient ease to attend to the letters I have received.  A plan of female education has never been a subject of systematic contemplation with me.  It has occupied my attention so far only as the education of my own daughters occasionally required.  Considering that they would be placed in a country situation, where little aid could be obtained from abroad, I thought it essential to give them a solid education, which might enable them, when become mothers, to educate their own daughters, and even to direct the course for sons, should their fathers be lost, or incapable, or inattentive.  My surviving daughter accordingly, the mother of many daughters as well as sons, has made their education the object of her life, and being a better judge of the practical part than myself, it is with her aid and that of one of her elevès, that I shall subjoin a catalogue of the books for such a course of reading as we have practiced.

A great obstacle to good education is the inordinate passion prevalent for novels, and the time lost in that reading which should be instructively employed.  When this poison infects the mind, it destroys its tone and revolts it against wholesome reading.  Reason and fact, plain and unadorned, are rejected.  Nothing can engage attention unless dressed in all the figments of fancy, and nothing so bedecked comes amiss.  The result is a bloated imagination, sickly judgment, and disgust towards all the real businesses of life.  This mass of trash, however, is not without some distinction ;  some few modelling their narratives, although fictitious, on the incidents of real life, have been able to make them interesting and useful vehicles of a sound morality.  Such, I think, are Marmontel’s new moral tales, but not his old ones, which are really immoral.  Such are the writings of Miss Edgeworth, and some of those of Madame Genlis.  For a like reason, too, much poetry should not be indulged.  Some is useful for forming style and taste.  Pope, Dryden, Thompson, Shakspeare, and of the French, Moliere, Racine, the Corneilles, may be read with pleasure and improvement.

The French language, become that of the general intercourse of nations, and from their extraordinary advances, now the depository of all science, is an indispensable part of education for both sexes.  In the subjoined catalogue, therefore, I have placed the books of both languages indifferently, according as the one or the other offers what is best.

The ornaments too, and the amusements of life, are entitled to their portion of attention.  These, for a female, are dancing, drawing, and music.  The first is a healthy exercise, elegant and very attractive for young people.  Every affectionate parent would be pleased to see his daughter qualified to participate with her companions, and without awkwardness at least, in the circles of festivity, of which she occasionally becomes a part.  It is a necessary accomplishment, therefore, although of short use;  for the French rule is wise, that no lady dances after marriage.  This is founded in solid physical reasons, gestation and nursing leaving little time to a married lady when this exercise can be either safe or innocent.  Drawing is thought less of in this country than in Europe.  It is an innocent and engaging amusement, often useful, and a qualification not to be neglected in one who is to become a mother and an instructor.  Music is invaluable where a person has an ear.  Where they have not, it should not be attempted.  It furnishes a delightful recreation for the hours of respite from the cares of the day, and lasts us through life.  The taste of this country, too, calls for this accomplishment more strongly than for either of the others.

I need say nothing of household economy, in which the mothers of our country are generally skilled, and generally careful to instruct their daughters.  We all know its value, and that diligence and dexterity in all its processes are inestimable treasures.  The order and economy of a house are as honorable to the mistress as those of the farm to the master, and if either be neglected, ruin follows, and children destitute of the means of living.

This, Sir, is offered as a summary sketch on a subject on which I have not thought much.  It probably contains nothing but what has already occurred to yourself, and claims your acceptance on no other ground than as a testimony of my respect for your wishes, and of my great esteem and respect.

To John Adams.
Monticello, May 17, 1818.

Dear Sir

I was so unfortunate as not to receive from Mr. Holly’s own hand your favor of January the 28th, being then at my other home.  He dined only with my family, and left them with an impression which has filled me with regret that I did not partake of the pleasure his visit gave them.  I am glad he is gone to Kentucky.  Rational Christianity will thrive more rapidly there than here.  They are freer from prejudices than we are, and bolder in grasping at truth.  The time is not distant, though neither you nor I shall see it, when we shall be but a secondary people to them.  Our greediness for wealth, and fantastical expense, have degraded, and will degrade, the minds of our maritime citizens.  These are the peculiar vices of commerce.

I had been long without hearing from you, but I had heard of you through a letter from Doctor Waterhouse.  He wrote to reclaim against an expression of Mr. Wirt’s, as to the commencement of motion in the revolutionary ball.  The lawyers say that words are always to be expounded secundum, subjectam materiem, which, in Mr. Wirt’s case, was Virginia.  It would, moreover, be as difficult to say at what moment the Revolution began, and what incident set it in motion, as to fix the moment that the embryo becomes an animal, or the act which gives him a beginning.  But the most agreeable part of his letter was that which informed me of your health, your activity, and strength of memory;  and the most wonderful, that which assured me that you retained your industry and promptness in epistolary correspondence.  Here you have entire advantage over me.  My repugnance to the writing-table becomes daily and hourly more deadly and insurmountable.  In place of this has come on a canine appetite for reading.  And I indulge it, because I see in it a relief against the tædium senectutis;  a lamp to lighten my path through the dreary wilderness of time before me, whose bourne I see not.  Losing daily all interest in the things around us, something else is necessary to fill the void.  With me it is reading, which occupies the mind without the labor of producing ideas from my own stock.

I enter into all your doubts as to the event of the revolution of South America.  They will succeed against Spain.  But the dangerous enemy is within their own breasts.  Ignorance and superstition will chain their minds and bodies under religious and military despotism.  I do believe it would be better for them to obtain freedom by degrees only ;  because that would by degrees bring on light and information, and qualify them to take charge of themselves understandingly ;  with more certainty, if in the meantime, under so much control as may keep them at peace with one another.  Surely, it is our duty to wish them independence and self-government, because they wish it themselves, and they have the right, and we none, to choose for themselves;  and I wish, moreover, that our ideas may be erroneous, and theirs prove well founded.  But these are speculations, my friend, which we may as well deliver over to those who are to see their development.  We shall only be lookers on, from the clouds above, as now we look down on the labors, the hurry and bustle of the ants and bees.  Perhaps in that supermundane region, we may be amused with seeing the fallacy of our own guesses, and even the nothingness of those labors which have filled and agitated our own time here.

En attendant, with sincere affections to Mrs. Adams and yourself, I salute you both cordially.

To Marc-Antoine Jullien.
Monticello, July 23, 1818.


Your favor of March 30th, 1817, came to my hands on the 1st of March, 1818.  While the statement it contained of the many instances of your attention in sending to me your different writings was truly flattering, it was equally mortifying to perceive that two only of the eight it enumerates, had ever come to my hands; and that both of my acknowledgments of these had miscarried also.  Your first favor of November 5th, 1809, was received by me on the 6th of May, 1810, and was answered on the 15th of July of the same year, with an acknowledgment of the receipt of your "Essai general d’education physique, morale et intellectuelle," and of the high sense I entertained of its utility.  I do not recollect through what channel I sent this answer, but have little doubt that it was through the office of our Secretary of State, and our minister then at the court of France.

In a letter from Mr. E.I. Dupont of August 11, 1817, I received the favor of your "Esquisse d’un ouvrage sur l’education comparée," which he said had been received by his father a few days before his death ;  and on the 9th of September, 1817, I answered his letter, in which was the following paragraph :  "I duly received the pamphlet of M. Jullien on Education, to whom I had been indebted some years before for a valuable work on the same subject.  Of this I expressed to him my high estimation in a letter of thanks, which I trust he received.  The present pamphlet is an additional proof of his useful assiduities on this interesting subject, which, if the condition of man is to be progressively ameliorated, as we fondly hope and believe, is to be the chief instrument in effecting it."  I hoped that Mr. E.I. Dupont, in acknowledging to you the receipt of your letter to his father, would be the channel of conveying to you my thanks, as he was to me of the work for which they were rendered.  Be assured, Sir, that not another scrip, either written or printed, ever came to me from you;  and that I was incapable of omitting the acknowledgments they called for, and of the neglect which vou have had so much reason to impute to me.  I know well the uncertainty of transmissions across the Atlantic, but never before experienced such a train of them as has taken place in your favors and my acknowledgments of them.  You will perceive that the letter I am now answering was eleven months on its passage to me.

The distance between the scenes of action of General Kosciusko and myself, during our Revolutionary war,—his in the military, mine in the civil department,—was such, that I could give no particulars of the part he acted in that war.  But immediately on the receipt of your letter, I wrote to General Armstrong, who had been his companion in arms, and an aid to General Gates, with whom General Kosciusko mostly served, and requested him to give me all the details within his knowledge;  informing him for whom, and for what purpose they were asked.  I received, two days ago only, the paper of which the enclosed is a copy, and copied by myself, because the original is in such a handwriting as I am confident no foreigner could ever decypher.  However heavily pressed by the hand of age, and unequal to the duties of punctual correspondence, of which my friends generally would have a right to complain, if the cause depended on myself, I am happy to find that in that with yourself there has been no ground of reproach.  Least of all things could I have omitted any researches within my power which might do justice to the memory of General Kosciusko, the brave auxiliary of my country in its struggle for liberty, and, from the year 1797, when our particular acquaintance began, my most intimate and much beloved friend.  On his last departure from the United States in 1798, he left in my hands an instrument appropriating after his death all the property he had in our public funds, the price of his military services here, to the education and emancipation of as many of the children of bondage in this country as it should be adequate to.  I am now too old to undertake a business de si longue haleine;  but I am taking measures to place it in such hands as will ensure a faithful discharge of the philanthropic intentions of the donor.  I learn with pleasure your continued efforts for the instruction of the future generations of men, and, believing it the only means of effectuating their rights, I wish them all possible success, and to yourself the eternal gratitude of those who will feel their benefits, and beg leave to add the assurance of my high esteem and respect.

To John Adams.
Monticello, November 13, 1818.

The public papers, my dear friend, announce the fatal event of which your letter of October the 20th had given me ominous foreboding.  Tried myself in the school of affliction, by the loss of every form of connection which can rive the human heart, I know well, and feel what you have lost, what you have suffered, are suffering, and have yet to endure.  The same trials have taught me that for ills so immeasurable, time and silence are the only medicine.  I will not, therefore, by useless condolences, open afresh the sluices of your grief, nor, although mingling sincerely my tears with yours, will I say a word more where words are vain, but that it is of some comfort to us both, that the term is not very distant, at which we are to deposit in the same cerement, our sorrows and suffering bodies, and to ascend in essence to an ecstatic meeting with the friends we have loved and lost, and whom we shall still love and never lose again.  God bless you and support you under your heavy affliction.

To Robert Walsh.
Monticello, December 4, 1818.

Dear Sir

Yours of November the 8th has been some time received;  but it is in my power to give little satisfaction as to its inquiries.  Dr. Franklin had many political enemies, as every character must, which, with decision enough to have opinions, has energy and talent to give them effect on the feelings of the adversary opinion.  These enmities were chiefly in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts.  In the former, they were merely of the proprietary party.  In the latter, they did not commence till the Revolution, and then sprung chiefly from personal animosities, which spreading by little and little, became at length of some extent.  Dr. Lee was his principal calumniator, a man of much malignity, who, besides enlisting his whole family in the same hostility, was enabled, as the agent of Massachusetts with the British government, to infuse it into that State with considerable effect.  Mr. Izard, the Doctor’s enemy also, but from a pecuniary transaction, never countenanced these charges against him.  Mr. Jay, Silas Deane, Mr. Laurens, his colleagues also, ever maintained towards him unlimited confidence and respect.  That he would have waived the formal recognition of our independence, I never heard on any authority worthy notice.  As to the fisheries, England was urgent to retain them exclusively, France neutral, and I believe, that had they been ultimately made a sine quâ non, our commissioners (Mr. Adams excepted) would have relinquished them, rather than have broken off the treaty.  To Mr. Adams’ perseverance alone, on that point, I have always understood we were indebted for their reservation.  As to the charge of subservience to France, besides the evidence of his friendly colleagues before named, two years of my own service with him at Paris, daily visits, and the most friendly and confidential conversation, convince me it had not a shadow of foundation.  He possessed the confidence of that government in the highest degree, insomuch, that it may truly be said, that they were more under his influence, than he under theirs.  The fact is, that his temper was so amiable and conciliatory, his conduct so rational, never urging impossibilities, or even things unreasonably inconvenient to them, in short, so moderate and attentive to their difficulties, as well as our own, that what his enemies called subserviency, I saw was only that reasonable disposition, which, sensible that advantages are not all to be on one side, yielding what is just and liberal, is the more certain of obtaining liberality and justice.  Mutual confidence produces, of course, mutual influence, and this was all which subsisted between Dr. Franklin and the government of France.

I state a few anecdotes of Dr. Franklin, within my own knowledge, too much in detail for the scale of Delaplaine’s work, but which may find a cadre in some of the more particular views you contemplate.  My health is in a great measure restored, and our family join with me in affectionate recollections and assurances of respect.

To Monsieur de Neuville.
Monticello, December 13, 1818.

I thank your Excellency for the notice with which your letters favor me, of the liberation of France from the occupation of the allied powers.  To no one, not a native, will it give more pleasure.  In the desolation of Europe, to gratify the atrocious caprices of Bonaparte, France sinned much;  but she has suffered more than retaliation.  Once relieved from the incubus of her late oppression, she will rise like a giant from her slumbers.  Her soil and climate, her arts and eminent sciences, her central position and free Constitution, will soon make her greater than she ever was.  And I am a false prophet, if she does not at some future day, remind of her sufferings those who have inflicted them the most eagerly.  I hope, however, she will be quiet for the present, and risk no new troubles.  Her Constitution, as now amended, gives as much of self-government as perhaps she can yet bear, and will give more, when the habits of order shall have prepared her to receive more.  Besides the gratitude which every American owes her, as our sole ally during the War of Independence, I am additionally affectioned by the friendships I contracted there, by the good dispositions I witnessed, and by the courtesies I received.

I rejoice, as a moralist, at the prospect of a reduction of the duties on wine, by our national legislature.  It is an error to view a tax on that liquor as merely a tax on the rich.  It is a prohibition of its use to the middling class of our citizens, and a condemnation of them to the poison of whiskey, which is desolating their houses.  No nation is drunken where wine is cheap;  and none sober, where the dearness of wine substitutes ardent spirits as the common beverage.  It is, in truth, the only antidote to the bane of whiskey.  Fix but the duty at the rate of other merchandise, and we can drink wine here as cheap as we do grog ;  and who will not prefer it ?  Its extended use will carry health and comfort to a much enlarged circle.  Every one in easy circumstances (as the bulk of our citizens are) will prefer it to the poison to which they are now driven by their government.  And the treasury itself will find that a penny apiece from a dozen, is more than a groat from a single one.  This reformation, however, will require time.  Our merchants know nothing of the infinite variety of cheap and good wines to be had in Europe ;  and particularly in France, in Italy, and the Grecian islands;  as they know little also, of the variety of excellent manufactures and comforts to be had anywhere out of England.  Nor will these things be known, nor of course called for here, until the native merchants of those countries, to whom they are known, shall bring them forward, exhibit and vend them at the moderate profits they can afford.  This alone will procure them familiarity with us, and the preference they merit in competition with corresponding articles now in use.

Our family renew with pleasure their recollections of your kind visit to Monticello, and join me in tendering sincere assurances of the gratification it afforded us, and of our great esteem and respectful consideration.